Explokart Research Project
Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica
by Günter Schilder
The aim of this series is to present an inventory of rare and significant Dutch maps and charts from the period 1550 and 1700. The bi-lingual work (Dutch and English) is the result of the author's investigations carried out during the past 30 years in numerous Dutch and foreign collections. Many maps are reproduced in full size facsimiles. In this way rare cartographical material will be made more readily accessible to people interested in the subject. With the publication of Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica the knowledge and appreciation of Dutch cartography in its Golden Age will be furthered.
Volume I - Volume II - Volume III - Volume IV - Volume V - Volume VI - Volume VII
Volumes to be published:
Volume VIII - Volume IX
"Any reference library that has the smallest interest in the history of early maps - or the history of art science, or technology - should subscribe to this series.
Each volume and its accompanying portfolio of unbound full-sized reproductions is a feast for the eyes. The maps are carefully described, many of their main legends translated from Latin into Dutch and English, and the Locations of their known impressions listed. There is a full description - with equations - of the mathematical construction and projection of the maps (with help from colleagues at Utrecht), archival and biographical information related to engraving and printing, and extensive narrative on the sources of the geographical content of the maps. Particularly from first-hand accounts from voyages of exploration. However, Monumenta Cartographica Neerlandica is far more than an illustrated bibliographical description. Each map is put into its context: cartographic, geographic, iconographic, and historical. Furthermore, other maps -not necessarily produced in the Netherlands - that are precursors of or associated with the main subject of the volumes, are also fully described. It would therefore be a mistake for the reader to assume that this work is about only Dutch maps. The extensive use of supporting illustrative material makes the project a veritable iconographic treasure trove: included are comparative details of maps and views, portraits, cartouches, ships, contemporary town views showing centers of the map trade, coverage diagrams showing sheet lines of major man series. heraldic arms, and other details.
David Woodward in "Imago Mundi" 46, 1994
All volumes are published by Uitgeverij "Canaletto", Alphen aan den Rijn, The Netherlands.
Consists of descriptions and full-size facsimiles of three wall maps of the Seventeen Provinces of the Netherlands by Gerard de Jode (1566), Willem Jansz. Blaeu (1608) and Joannes van Deutecum-Claes Jansz. Visscher (1594, reprinted 1636). Schilder's full and informative survey of the work of the van Deutecum ramily of engravers (fl. 1560-1630) includes a transcription of two inventories, one of 1608 drawn up before the marriage of Jan Jansz. van Deutecom and Magdalena Sebastiaans the widow of Cornelis Cornelisz. van Woerden. and the other made after Magdalena died in 1625. The whole inventory is a rich source of information for Dutch everyday life in the seventeenth-century. but of particular interest here are the references to copper plates, printing equipment. and sheet maps and religious prints for stock. For instance, a press called a 'cunst pars' (art press or roller press) and 'Drucklappen' (probably felts laid over the paper and copper plate as they passed through the roller press) are mentioned. It is also clear from this inventory that quite large stocks of maps were maintained (as many as 123 impressions from one plate were found in the first inventory) The second contains an entry for twelve plates (platen) of a map of Rome and this possibly refers to the plates for the Antonio Tempesta view of Rome.
Of the many examples of the painstaking detective work on which the success of this volume is based. the story of Schilder's find in Skokloster Castle in Sweden of the most complete example of Visscher's wall map of the Seventeen Provinces is the most dramatic. James Welu had already surmised that the wall map appearing in Jan Vermeer's 'Painter in his Studio' had been issued with twenty small town views on the left and right sides. even though no complete example was then known. In Skokloster Castle Sweden, Schilder found an example of this map with nine of the ten views on the right hand side intact. It was in a chest underneath was thought to be the wooden bottom of a large cupboard. The map is reproduced with the remaining views (one on the right and ten on the left) reconstructed from separate impressions in other collections.
Contents of Volume I
I. Van Deutecum a family of engravers
II. Printed wall-maps of the Seventeen Provinces, published in the Netherlands in the sixteenth and seventeenth century
III. The wall-map of the Seventeen Provinces published by Gerard de Jode in 1566
a. Jacob van Deventer's work as a pioneer in mapping the Dutch Provinces
b. De Jode as a publisher of maps of Dutch provinces
c. The wall-map of the Seventeen Provinces, 1566.
IV. The wall-map of the Seventeen Provinces by Willem Jansz. Blaeu, 1608 and later editions
a. The editlo princeps
b. The edition of 1622
c. A later edition
d. The edition by Joan Blaeu of 1658
e. The development of the use of town views as decoration in map-borders
f. The in-folio edition of 1608
V. The wall-map of the Seventeen Provinces by Claes Jansz. Visscher, 1636
a. The original edition flu 1594
b. The 1636 edition
c. An edition in two sheets Index
l. Gerard de Jode, Wall-map of the Seventeen Provinces, 1566. (5 sheets)
2. Willem Jansz. Blaeu, Map of the Seventeen Provinces, 1608 (1622) (22 sheets)
3. Willem Jansz. Blaeu, Map of the Seventeen Provinces in folio,1608. (2 sheets)
4. Joannes van Deutecum, Wall-map of the Seventeen Provinces, 1594 (3 sheets)
5. Claes Jansz. Visscher, Wall-map of the Seventeen Provinces, 1636. (14 sheets)
6. Francois van den Hoeye, Map of the Seventeen Provinces in two sheets, 1616. (4 sheets)
The second volume-in contrast is much more varied in content. It focuses mainly on sixteenth-century Antwerp, until its fall in 1585 the center of the Netherlands map trade. The volume reproduces in full size maps by Abraham Ortelius, Joan Baptista Vrients. and the Galle family. Three of Ortelius's wall maps are given chapters of their own, and the description of his wall map of the world (1564) is preceded by a description of other wall maps published before his time and outside the Netherlands. beginning with Waldseemuller (1507). Although it is not entirely clear why these non-Dutch maps were included (and the practice was not fully followed in later volumes). they are useful summary descriptions.
In chapter two of the second volume, Schilder explains the relationship between some maps of Ortelius and the Italian geographer Giacomo Castaldi and here a little Dutch-Italian rivalry rears its head. For example, Ortelius's eight-sheet wall map of Asia in eight sheets (1567) was significantly based on Gastaldi's 'prima, seconda. e terza parte dell'Asia.' In fact, Ortelius acknowledges his debt to Gastaldi in his the address to the geography of Aboulfeda, which had become known in Europe through the infamous philologist. historian, and arabist Guillaume Postel (1495-1581). Postel gave his translated summary to Giambattista Ramusio, who published it in his Navigotioni et Vioggi. a work in which Gastaldi took part. But since there was no mention of a 'map' in Ramusio's summary of Aboulfeda - a 'model' is the word he uses one might wish for more discussion of the extent to which Gastaldi was indebted to the Arabic geographer for his information and whether or not there was an Arabic map on which he relied.
In contrast. Schilder's analysis of Ortelius's six-sheet wall map of Spain (1571) and its related precursors is extremely thorough. Ortelius co authored this map with Carolus Clusius, whose travels in Spain to describe botanical specimens gave rise to his famous book on the plants of the Iberian peninsula (1576). Along the way. Clusius noted the landscape in general. and this information culminated in his contribution to Ortelius's wall map Among the useful descriptions of earlier wall maps of Spain is that concerning the curious four-sheet anonymous map in the Museo Correr and the map of Spain in six sheets (1558) attributed to Matteo Pagano by his imprint and dedicated - as are several Italian maps - to the Dutch humanist Nicholas Stopius.
Contents of Volume II
I. The map of the world by Abraham Ortelius, 1564
a. The world of Abraham Ortelius
b. Printed wall-maps of the world published before 1564
c. The wall-map of the world in eight sheets by Abraham Ortelius, 1564
d. The folio edition of 1571
II. The wall-map of Asia by Abraham Ortelius, 1567
III. The wall-map of Spain by Abraham Ortelius and Carolus~Clusius, 1571
a. Carolus Clusius
b. Wall-maps of Spain prior to 1570
c. The wall-map of Spain by Carolus Clusius
IV. The wall-map of the Seventeen Provinces in twelve sheets by Joan Baptista Vrients, 1605
a. The editlo princeps by Filips Galle
b. The edition by Joan Baptista Vrients, 1605
c. The edition by Joannes Galle
d. A map of the Central Netherlands in two sheets, published by the Galle family
1. Abraham Ortelius, Wall-map of the world, 1564. (8 sheets)
2. Gerard de Jode, Map of the world, 1571. (1 sheet)
3. Abraham Ortelius, Wall-map of Asia, 1567. (8 sheets)
4. Abraham Ortelius - Carolus Clusius, Wall-map of Spain, 1571. (6 sheets)
5. Filips Galle - Joan Baptista Vrients, Wall-map of the Seventeen Provinces, 1605. (16 sheets)
6. Joannes Galle, Map of the Central Netherlands in two sheets. (3 sheets)
7. Filips Galle - Joan Baptista Vrients, Map of the Seventeen Provinces in folio, 1606. (1 sheet)
8. Joannes en Baptista van Deutecum, Map of the Seventeen Provinces in folio, 1588. (1 sheet)
9. Frederick de Wit, Map of the Seventeen Provinces in folio, 1652. (1 sheet)
Is larger than volumes I and II combined. It is devoted entirely to the wall map of the world in two hemispheres published in 1619 by Willem Jansz, Blaeu and reissued with alterations by his son Joan in 1645-46. Both versions are part of a rich cartographic tradition in Amsterdam in the first half of the seventeenth century that satisfied an immense demand for global information Testimony to the fragility of wall maps, thousands of impressions of both maps were originally printed but only one example of each state is extant, both at the 'Prins Hendrik' Maritime Museum in Rotterdam.
Following the fall of Antwerp in 1585, the economic center of the Netherlands moved to the northern Netherlands, particularly Amsterdam Amsterdam's growth was stimulated by several factors: to record exploration associated with the northeast passage, the East and West Indies, and South America; to disseminate news of the war with Spain; and to document changes in the domestic cultural landscape, particularly hydrographical. To achieve these aims, the city was able to capitalize on the new pool of geographical talent in the form of religious refugees from the southern Netherlands, particularly Cornelis Claesz, Petrus Plancius, Petrus Bertius, and Pieter and Abraham Coos.
With this backdrop in place, Schilder provides a short but very useful biography of Blaeu, who started out as Willem Jansz. but decided to adopt his father's sobriquet (Blue Willem) as the family name to avoid confusion with Jan Jansz. who had moved in next door, Willem Jansz. thus became Willem Jansz, Blaeu around 1622. Blaeu's appointment as official mapmaker to the Dutch East India Company (VOC) on the death of Hessel Gerritsz in 1632 sharpened his competitive edge: he now had the complete archive of maps and charts of the VOC at his disposal. But his competitors were never entirely
As further background. this volume contains a description of thirteen wall maps of the world published in Amsterdam before 1619 with all their editions, highlighting the importance of the radical Calvinist Petrus Plancius's map of 1592 in eighteen sheets. Plancius's map was the basis of many Late sixteenth-century wall maps - Dutch and Italian - and Schilder provides a very useful genealogical stemma of its influence.
The core of this third volume is a detailed description of the two versions of the Blaeu wall map (1619 and 1645/46). Sources used for iconography as well as geography are presented. Between Willem Blaeu's version of 1619 and Joan Blaeu's second edition (1645/46). there were key discoveries and advances in geographical knowledge: the fictitious northwest coast of America is omitted, and the results of Abel Tasman's two voyages (1642-43 and 1644) in Australia and New Zealand - as well as those of his predecessors - have been included. But not all the geographical changes to the map were 'progressive:' the representation of California as an island in the second version appears alongside the more timely representation of the momentous explorations in the southern hemisphere. Nor should the power of decoration in the market place he underemphasized. as Schilder's lengthy general excursion into the development of decorative borders on Dutch wall maps before 1619 demonstrates: after the Peace of Munster, which ended the Thirty Years' War and changed many national boundaries and names, Joan Blaeu put out an entirely new map of the world on 21 copper plates in 1648, but demand for the geographically obsolete 1645-46 map continued simply because the 1648 map did not have decorative borders.
Contents of Volume III
I. Amsterdam during the time of Willem Jansz [Blaeu]
II. Wall-maps of the world published in Amsterdam before 1619
III. The wall-map of the world in two hemispheres by Willem Jansz. [Blaeu] of 1619
a. History and description
b. The development of decorative borders on Dutch wall-maps before 1619
c. The decorations belonging to the wall-map of the world of 2619 and 1645/46
d. The geographical contents
IV. The revised edition of the wall-map of the world in two hemispheres by Joan Blaeu of 1645/46
a. History and description
b. The geographical changes
Appendix: Transcription of the Latin text, accompanied by Dutch and English translation.
1. The wall-map of the world by Willem Jansz. [Blaeu], 1619 (10 sheets)
2. The wall-map of the world by Joan Blaeu, 1645/46 (31 sheets)
Consists of descriptions and facsimiles of the single-sheet maps and topographical prints published by Willem Jansz. Blaeu. A short description of the stale of research on Blaeu and his cartographic activity. which includes a useful bibliography of the literature cited on Blaeu, is followed by an illustrated catalogue of the single~sheet maps and topographical prints, listed in chronological order. The history of each copperplate in its different states is fully.
described and a full bibliography and list of extant examples or impressions provided for each item. Of the 23 maps and prints discussed here, two are commemorative military prints, two are world maps, four depict a continent, eight are 'national,' three show regions, and four concern local areas and cities. In Chapter 3, the bibliographical description is repeated from the catalogue in chapter 2, but the narrative goes on to analyze these 23 maps and prints in great detail, with due attention to both iconographical and geographical sources. A number of appendices transcribe various archival documents relating to Blaeu, translated from Latin into Dutch but not into English. These include resolutions by various government bodies. notarial documents, and letters in Latin and Dutch to John Scot, Wilhelm Schickard. Paulo Sonnio and Pieter Cornelisz. Hooft. There is also a description of Blaeu's printing office on the Bloemgracht and a document on Blaeu's association with the Dutch East India Company.
Contents of Volume IV
I. The state of research into the cartographical work of Willem Jansz Blaeu (1571-1638)
II. Inventory of single-sheet maps and topographical prints published by Willem Jansz Blaeu
III. Descriptions of the reproduced prints and maps
1. Capture of Spanish galleys by an Anglo-Dutch naval force, 3/4 October 1602
2. Sea battle off Sluis, 26 May 1603
3. Map of the world on Mercator's projection in two sheets, 1604
4. Map of the Seventeen Provinces, 1604
5. Map of Holland, 1604
6. Map of Spain, 1605
7. Map of the world in folio size, drawn on Mercator's projection, 1606
8. Map of Italy, 1606
9. Profile of Amsterdam, 1606
10. Map of Cermania, c. 1606
11. Map of France, 1607
12. Map of the Beemster before the inpoldering, 1607
13. Map of the Seventeen Provinces, 1608
14. Map of Holland, 1608
15. Map of Germania, 1609
16. Map of the Beemster after the inpoldering, c. 1613
17. Profile of Venice, 1614
18. Map of Groningen, 1616
19. Map of Europe, 1617
20. Map of Asia 
21. Map of Africa 
22. Map of America 
23. Map of the British Isles, c. 1629
I. Resolutions by the States General
II. Resolutions by the States of Holland and West-Friesland
III. Documents concerning Willem Jansz Blaeu
IV.A. Latin letters written by Willem Jansz. Blaeu. Published and translated by Chris L. Heesakkers
IV.B. Dutch letters written by Willem Jansz Blaeu
V. Description of the Blaeu's printing-office on the Bloemgracht
VI. Willem Jansz Blaeu and the Dutch East India Company (VOC)
The 23 maps mentioned above
Consists of descriptions and facsimiles of ten wall maps; the four continents by Willem Blaeu (1624 state by Henricus Hondius); Germania by Willem Jansz. Blaeu and Nicolaas Visscher; Holland and West Friesland by Willem Blaeu (1621) and Nicolaas Visscher (s.d.); Italy by Willem Jansz. Blaeu (1614-1617); and Flanders by Willem Jansz. Blaeu, 1638.
A description of the Amsterdam cartographic scene in the first half of the 17th century.
The history of each copperplate in its different states is fully described and a full bibliography and list of extant examples or impressions provided for each item.
Contents of Volume IV
I. The world opened up
II. Wall maps of the four continents by Willem Jansz. Blaeu (1608)
1. Engraved allegorical representations of the four continents
2. Sets of wall maps of the continents, published in the Netherlands before 1608
3. Wall maps of the four continents by Willem Jansz. [Blaeu] published in 1608 and later
III. The wall maps of Germania by the Visscher and Blaeu families
1. Wall maps of Germania published in the Southern Netherlands
2. The wall map of Germania by Rumold Mercator (1590) and its later versions by the Hondius and Visscher families
3. Pieter van den Keere's imitation of 1611 and its later versions.
4. The Germania wall map of 1612 by Willem Jansz. [Blaeu] and its later states
IV. Wall maps of the Province of Holland and West-Friesland published by Willem Jansz. Blaeu and the Visscher family
1. The wall map of Holland by the Van Berckenrode family
2. The publication by Willem Jansz. Blaeu in 1621
3. A copy by Henricus Hondius, 1629
4. The Van Berckenrode/Blaeu map in the editions of the Visscher family
V. Wall map of Italy by Willem Jansz. Blaeu
1. Giovanni Antonio Magini: The L'Italia atlas and his Italia Nuova wall map (1608)
2. The wall map of Italy by Willem Jansz. [Blaeu] [1614-17]
VI. The wall map of Flanders by Willem Jansz. Blaeu, 1638
2. The wall mp of Flanders by Willem Jansz. Blaeu, 1638
1. Willem Jansz. Blaeu, Wall map of Europe (1608) published by Henricus Hondius in 1624 (14 sheets)
2. Willem Jansz. Blaeu, Wall map of Asia (1608) published by Henricus Hondius in 1624 (14 sheets)
3. Willem Jansz. Blaeu, Wall map of Africa (1608) published by Henricus Hondius in 1624 (14 sheets)
4. Willem Jansz. Blaeu, Wall map of America (1608) published by Henricus Hondius in 1624 (14 sheets)
5. Nicolaas Visscher, Wall map of Germania [s.d.] (16 sheets)
6. Willem Jansz. Blaeu, Wall map of Germania (1612; 2nd state) (16 sheets)
7. Willem Jansz. Blaeu, Wall map of Holland and West-Friesland (1621) (11 sheets)
8. Nicolaas Visscher, Wall map of Holland and West-Friesland [s.d.] (18 sheets)
9. Willem Jansz. Blaeu, Wall map of Italy [1614-17] (16 sheets)
10. Willem Jansz. Blaeu, Wall map of Flanders (1638) (9 sheets)
Full description and contents here
The sixth volume attention is focused on maps with decorative borders published in Amsterdam since the end of the 16th century. The production of Amsterdam publishers was surprisingly abundant and diverse. Special products were the single-sheet maps in folio-size with decorative borders, which were published for the world, the four continents~ and various European countries and regions. The map decoration was relegated to the map borders in order not to detract from the actual contents of the map. A more rigorous approach was developed, in which the decorative elements were related directly to the map area involved. Town plans and views, combined with costumed figures of natives characteristic for the map area, were the most sought after subject matter for the decorative borders. It is noteworthy that publishers, even though that they could call upon a large stock of existing prints, still specially commissioned well-known artists to produce new designs.
The center part of volume VI will be formed by an illustrated descriptive catalogue of all Dutch single-sheet maps with decorative borders. In this cartobibliography the history of each copperplate in its different states will be described (c. 120 prototypes in about 350 states). Attention will be paid to both art-historical and geographical aspects. A selection will be published in full scale reproduction.
This volume will be the result of a cooperative effort by prof. G¨nter Schilder and prof. Klaus Stopp.
Table of contents and list of facsimiles here
This volume is devoted entirely to the work of Cornelis Claesz (c. 1551-1609), who at the end of the 16th and beginning of the 17th century was the greatest Amsterdam publisher. In those years Claesz was the driving force behind publications in the field of cartography, description of foreigh lands, seaborne naviation and books on the outcome of Dutch voyages of discovery and trade missions into all parts of teh globe. The entrepeneurship and aptitude in trade, is indeed well reflected in he astounding array of maps, atlases and travel-histories, he had on offer.
Nearly all the maps and charts mentioned in Claesz's Const ende Caert-Register (Art and Map-inventory list) of 1609 have been located by the author. The emphasis of this volume relates to the central role of Cornelis Claesz in the supply of maritime and geographical know-how and its dissemination through his multi-faceted publications in the period of 1580 till 1610. In accordance with the aims of the research project as a whole, special attention is paid to the loose-leaf maps marketed by Cornelis Claesz, their analysis and description. They have been arranged by subject; their context is historically justified, their sequence allows to trace their development. These loose maps were particularly vulnerable and on occasion only a few have survived.
The core of this volume offers detailed descriptions and full-sized facsimiles of the 8-sheet wall maps of the four continents along with the earliest sea charts which provide a virtually complete summary of the cartography of the whole world and form the oldest series of printed Dutch charts showing seas and coastlines outside Europe, and of a set of very scarce maps of different European countries.
Table of contents and list of facsimiles here
The maps and charts, published separately by Jodocus Hondius (1653-1612) and Petrus Kaerius (Pieter van den Keere) (1571-after 1646) are the subject of this volume. Both were renowned engravers, mapmakers and publishers, who had a decisive influence on development of cartography in Amsterdam. Their lives and cartographic works have been discussed in detail. A selection of the maps have been reproduced at full scale. From Hondius' production, e.g. a hitherto unknown eight-sheet wall map of the world on Mercator's projection (1596), the wall maps of the continents (1598), France (c. 1600), the British Isles (1604) and the Seventeen Provinces (1593 and 1602). From Kaerius' hand, e.g. the wall map of the world in four sheets (1609), the Seventeen Provinces of 1607 (1612) in twelve sheets and of Germania (1611) in seven sheets. Also an illustrated cartobibliography of Kaerius' separately folio-sized maps has been published in an appendix.
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